Currently, no specific state regulations govern the installation of GSHP systems. However, discharge of water from an open loop system to a surface waterbody, such as a stream, may require a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit.
An EPA reporting requirement exists for injection of water to a return well for groundwater heat pump systems.
Also, GSHP systems must be constructed so that they will prevent any contamination from occurring or spreading. Wells must be installed by licensed drillers who are required to submit well logs and locations to the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Local ordinances also may affect the installation of systems.
In most states including Virginia, a water well permit and HVAC permits are required. Depending on the complexity, an electrical and a plumbing permit may also be required